Lowe's oculocerebrorenal syndrome (OCRL) is a human X-linked developmental disorder of unknown pathogenesis and has a pleiotropic phenotype affecting the lens, brain and kidneys. The OCRL locus has been mapped to Xq25-q26 by linkage and by finding de novo X; autosome translocations at Xq25-q26 in two unrelated females with OCRL. Here we use yeast artificial chromosomes with inserts that span the X chromosomal breakpoint from a female OCRL patient in order to isolate complementary DNAs for a gene that is interrupted by the translocation. We show that the transcript is absent in both female OCRL patients with X; autosome translocations and that it is absent or abnormally sized in 9 of 13 unrelated male OCRL patients with no detectable genomic rearrangement. The open reading frame encodes a new protein with 71% similarity to human inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase. Our results suggest that OCRL may be an inborn error of inositol phosphate metabolism.