Enucleation technique for children with retinoblastoma

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1992 Jul-Aug;29(4):213-5. doi: 10.3928/0191-3913-19920701-06.


Based on personal experience with approximately 350 enucleations for retinoblastoma, the authors describe their current surgical technique for removal of the eye, opening the globe to harvest fresh tissue for research including DNA analysis, and placement of the new hydroxyapatite orbital implant. Enucleation should be performed as gently as possible. A hemostat is placed on the stump of the severed medial rectus muscle for traction purposes, and long, minimally curved scissors are used to cut the optic nerve near the orbital apex. Clamps and snares are not advised and cautery of the orbital tissue is avoided. A piece of optic nerve is first submitted separately for histopathologic study and the globe is opened with a specific technique to harvest fresh tumor tissue. A hydroxyapatite implant covered by sterilized sclera is placed in the anophthalmic socket to provide orbital volume and improved motility of the prosthesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA, Neoplasm / analysis
  • Durapatite
  • Eye Enucleation / methods*
  • Eye Neoplasms / genetics
  • Eye Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyapatites
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Retinoblastoma / genetics
  • Retinoblastoma / surgery*


  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Hydroxyapatites
  • Durapatite