Treatment of arterial hypertension in diabetic humans: importance of therapeutic selection

Kidney Int. 1992 Apr;41(4):912-9. doi: 10.1038/ki.1992.139.


This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that, given equal arterial pressure reductions, the combination of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and calcium antagonist slows declines in renal function and yields greater reductions in albuminuria over either agent alone. This hypothesis was evaluated in four groups of hypertensive, non-insulin dependent, diabetic subjects with renal insufficiency (N = 30). Renal hemodynamics, albuminuria and metabolic parameters were evaluated for a period of one year. Subjects were all placed on a 90 mEq sodium, 0.8 g/kg protein, 1500 calorie American Diabetes Association diet for the entire length of the study. Subjects were followed for two weeks off antihypertensive medications and were subsequently randomized to either lisinopril, alone (group I), sustained release verapamil, alone (group II), reduced doses of both lisinopril and sustained release verapamil (group III), and hydrochlorothiazide with guanfacine (group IV). At the end of one year group III had the greatest reduction in albuminuria (78 +/- 7%, group III vs. 59% +/- 4, group I: P less than 0.05). In addition, the decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was the lowest in this group (0.28 +/- 0.07, group III vs. 0.69 +/- 0.12, group I; P less than 0.05) although there was no significant difference between groups II and IV. The highest side effect profiles were noted in group IV, the least in group III. The greatest reductions in renal hemodynamics occurred in all groups within the first month; however, striking differences between groups were noted (7.4 +/- 2%, group I vs. 1.4 +/- 2%, group III; P less than 0.05). We conclude that the combination of reduced doses of an ACE inhibitor and calcium antagonist attenuate both albuminuria and the rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, the combination of these classes of agents appear to yield the lowest side effect profile over either agent alone. Lastly, high doses of ACE inhibition alone may be detrimental to renal function in late stage diabetics with renal insufficiency.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Dipeptides / therapeutic use
  • Drug Combinations
  • Female
  • Hemodynamics / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hydrochlorothiazide / therapeutic use
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Lisinopril
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proteinuria / complications
  • Renal Circulation / drug effects
  • Verapamil / therapeutic use


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Dipeptides
  • Drug Combinations
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Verapamil
  • Lisinopril