The authors performed a controlled double-blind neurophysiological study (uridine vs placebo) in 40 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Twenty subjects were treated with uridine and 20 with placebo. The neurophysiological evaluation consisted of a study of the MCV of the median nerve, the common Peroneal, the posterior Tibial, the SCV of the radial nerve, the median and the sural as well as the amplitudes of the motor and sensory responses. The nerves examined were on the dominant side. The evaluations were performed at baseline and after 60, 120, 180 days of therapy with a follow up control after 90 days from the completion of therapy. No statistically significant modifications were observed in the placebo group. In the drug group, the neurophysiological parameters improved significantly from the 120th day post therapy compared with baseline and were maintained through to follow up. The authors discuss the results which demonstrated that treatment with uridine can bring about a neurophysiological improvement in peripheral nerves.