Murine cDNAs representing distinct genes for the regulatory subunits of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (CaM-PrP) were cloned from a testis library, using probes prepared by PCR amplification of brain and testis mRNA. The cDNA sequence of the brain-specific isoform (beta 1) encodes a 170 amino acid protein (M(r) approximately 19.3 kDa), whereas that for the testis isoform (beta 2) contains 179 residues (M(r) approximately 20.7 kDa); these two sequences show approximately 80% amino acid identity. An oligonucleotide probe for the brain isoform hybridized to a single mRNA of 3.6 kilobases (kb) in many tissues, whereas using the beta 2 probe, two mRNAs of 1.8 and 0.8 kb were detected only in testis. The mRNA for the testis-specific isoform increases markedly during development, its pattern being virtually identical to that of mRNA for a testicular form of the catalytic subunit (alpha 3). These data are consistent with the biological co-regulation of catalytic and regulatory subunits of a testis-specific isoenzyme during germ cell maturation.