Evaluation of a collagen/hydroxylapatite implant for orbital reconstructive surgery

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;8(2):94-108. doi: 10.1097/00002341-199206000-00003.


A variety of autogenous and alloplastic materials have been used to correct enophthalmos. Hydroxylapatite (HA), is a calcium-phosphate-based compound that has been extensively studied as a bone replacement material. We studied the properties of a new dense particulate form of HA in a collagen matrix (PFC/HA) implanted in the subperiosteal space of ten rabbit orbits for a period of 6 months. All animals were studied with pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, and measurements of induced proptosis and implant volume were made. The proptosis induced by the implant averaged 2.2 mm and was stable over a 6-month period. Implant volume was constant throughout the study. Three-dimensional computer-generated images of the soft tissue, skeletal, and implant surfaces confirmed the implant stability. All animals were studied histologically with fluorochrome bone markers, which revealed minimal foreign body reaction to the implant, no evidence of infection, and marked fibrovascular ingrowth. We found the PFC/HA to possess properties that make it an ideal implant material: ease of availability, ease of handling, no resorption, minimal immunogenicity, infection resistance, no observed migration, biointegration, and no risk of disease transmission. PFC/HA may make an excellent implant material to manage orbital volume.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Collagen*
  • Durapatite
  • Exophthalmos / pathology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Foreign-Body Reaction / pathology
  • Hydroxyapatites*
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Orbit / diagnostic imaging
  • Orbit / pathology
  • Orbit / surgery*
  • Prostheses and Implants*
  • Rabbits
  • Random Allocation
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Hydroxyapatites
  • Collagen
  • Durapatite