Infection of rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells by coxsackie B5 virus (CBV5) was non-cytopathic, although low titres of infectious virus were produced after 24 h post-infection. The extent of CBV5 replication in RD cells increased after sequential passage of the virus in these cells. The RD cells from the first cycle of CBV5 infection were recovered and maintained in culture for 3 months (equivalent to 21 passages) releasing infectious virus throughout this period; these cells were considered to be persistently infected with CBV5 and were designated piRD cells. Coxsackie virus antigen was demonstrated in a small proportion of piRD cells by immunofluorescence staining. High resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyse the intracellular proteins prepared from piRD cells, three proteins were detected which were absent in uninfected RD cells. These new proteins were similar in charge to virus proteins induced during CBV5 lytic infection of HEp-2 cells. Quantitative densitometry of 2-dimensional protein profiles of piRD and uninfected cells showed no significant disruption of RD cell protein synthesis by the persistent virus infection. Three cloned cell lines were recovered from piRD cells, none of which showed evidence of infectious virus or virus-induced protein synthesis suggesting that the parental cell line was a carrier culture for CBV5.