A 90-kDa phosphoprotein (p90) of the endoplasmic reticulum was identified by a monoclonal antibody generated against human hepatoma cells. Pulse-chase experiments with [32P]phosphate and [35S]methionine demonstrated that p90 formed both stable and transient complexes with other cellular proteins, suggesting its role as a molecular chaperone. This protein associates with heavy chains of major histocompatibility complex class I proteins, suggesting that it is the human homolog of the recently described 88-kDa protein that transiently associates with murine class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum. The p90 protein also associates in B lymphocytes with membrane immunoglobulin mu heavy chains and may serve as a chaperone for many membrane-bound polypeptides. A partial human p90 cDNA was cloned from a lambda gt11 expression library and identified as the human homolog of calnexin, a major canine calcium-binding protein found to be associated with the signal-sequence receptor in endoplasmic reticulum membranes.