Using a standard two-lever operant procedure with rats trained to discriminate 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) (0.5 mg/kg) from saline, tests of stimulus antagonism and stimulus generalization were performed to better understand the stimulus properties of this agent. The agents examined for ability to antagonize the TFMPP stimulus were prazosin, quipazine, zacopride, buspirone, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), 1-(2-methoxyphenol)-4-[4-(2-phthalimido)butyl]-piperazine (NAN-190), haloperidol, and 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP); only buspirone attenuated the response to TF-MPP. In separate experiments, the lowest nondisrupting dose of buspirone (1.2 mg/kg) caused a rightward shift of the TFMPP dose-response curve (TFMPP alone, ED50 = 0.19 mg/kg; TFMPP + buspirone, ED50 = 0.43 mg/kg). In addition, 3-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyrid-4-yl)pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrid-5-one (CP 93, 129), 7-trifluoromethyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)pyrolo[1,2-a]quinox ali ne (CGS 12066B), 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), 3-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG), NAN-190, nisoxetine, zacopride, 1-PP, (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-NANM), and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (MDMA) were analyzed in tests of stimulus generalization. The TFMPP stimulus generalized only to CGS 12066B (ED50 = 4.2 mg/kg) and (+)-NANM (ED50 = 8.8 mg/kg). Tests with DOI and MDMA resulted in partial generalization. Up to doses that disrupted behavior, all other agents had little effect on TFMPP-appropriate responding. The results of these and other published studies suggest roles for 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT1B), 5-HT1C, and, possibly, sigma-receptors in the mediation of the TFMPP stimulus and indicate a lack of involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, dopaminergic, and adrenergic mechanisms in this behavior.