Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a pestivirus genome, noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus strain SD-1

Virology. 1992 Dec;191(2):867-9. doi: 10.1016/0042-6822(92)90262-n.


Genomic RNA of noncytopathic (NCP) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain SD-1 was extracted directly from serum obtained from a persistently infected animal. cDNA was synthesized and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) before cloning. The complete genomic nucleotide sequence was determined by sequencing at least two different clones from independent PCR reactions. The 5' and 3' end sequences of the SD-1 genome was determined from 5'-3' ligation clones. The complete genome sequence was comprised of 12,308 nucleotides containing one large open reading frame which encodes an amino acid sequence of 3898 residues with a calculated molecular weight of 438 kDa. In contrast to cytopathic (CP) BVDV strain NADL, which contains a cellular RNA insert of 270 nucleotides and CP BVDV strain Osloss, which has an inserted ubiquitin RNA sequence of 228 nucleotides, the NCP strain SD-1 had no insertion along the genome. Sequence comparison with other pestiviruses revealed that the overall nucleotide sequence homologies of SD-1 are 88.6% with NADL, 78.3% with Osloss, 67.1% with HoCV Alfort, and 67.2% with HoCV Brescia. The overall deduced amino acid sequence homologies of SD-1 are 92.7% with NADL, 86.2% with Osloss, 72.5% with HoCV Alfort, and 71.2% with HoCV Brescia. The most conserved nucleotide and amino acid sequences are located in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and nonstructural protein p80 region, respectively. The viral glycoproteins, particularly gp53, and nonstructural proteins p54 and p58 have the lowest homology comparing both nucleotide and amino acid sequences between SD-1 and other pestiviruses. Extensive analyses of amino acid sequences for the viral structural proteins and nonstructural protein p54 regions from five pestiviruses led to the identification of four conserved domains (designated as C1, C2, C3, C4) and three highly variable domains (designated as V1, V2, V3) within this region. The C1, C2, and C3 domains are located in the capsid protein p14, glycoprotein gp48, and gp25, respectively. The C4 domain is located in the junction between gp53 and p54. Interestingly, out of three variable domains, two (V1, V2) are located in the same glycoprotein gp53. The third variable domain is located in the nonstructural protein p54.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cattle
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome, Viral
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Open Reading Frames
  • Pestivirus / genetics*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Protein Precursors / genetics
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • RNA, Viral / genetics*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Viral Proteins / genetics


  • Protein Precursors
  • RNA, Viral
  • Viral Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M96751