Multiplicity generates diversity in the retinoic acid signalling pathways

Trends Biochem Sci. 1992 Oct;17(10):427-33. doi: 10.1016/0968-0004(92)90014-z.


Complexity in the retinoid signalling system arises from a combination of several forms of retinoic acid, multiple cytoplasmic binding proteins and nuclear receptors, and the existence of polymorphic retinoic acid response elements. Additional diversity appears to be generated by heterodimeric interactions between two families of nuclear retinoic acid receptors, and between nuclear retinoic acid receptors and other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Thus, a complex array of combinatorial effects is beginning to emerge which may account for the pleiotropic effects of retinoids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Carrier Proteins / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Transcription Factors / physiology
  • Tretinoin / metabolism*


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tretinoin