Elements required for activation of the major promoter of the human insulin-like growth factor II gene

Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992 Oct;88(1-3):175-85. doi: 10.1016/0303-7207(92)90022-x.


The human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene contains four promoters, P1-P4. In fetal liver promoter P3 is the major promoter, which consists of a proximal region that supports general transcription, and a cell-specific region located more upstream. In addition to the TATA box, the proximal region contains four binding sites for nuclear proteins, designated PE3-1 to PE3-4. To determine the influence of the proteins binding to these elements, the transcriptional activity of the proximal region of P3 was investigated. Promoter P3 was analyzed in Hep3B cells, which express high levels of IGF-II mRNA derived from this promoter, and in HeLa cells, that have an inactive IGF-II gene. By analysis of 5'-deletion constructs in an in vitro transcription system and in transient expression assays, and by competition with specific oligonucleotides it was shown that the factors binding to the elements PE3-4, PE3-2 and PE3-1 play an important role in the regulation of promoter P3.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • Carrier Proteins
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / biosynthesis
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics*
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / pharmacology
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters
  • TATA Box
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters
  • Transcription Factors
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II