1. The effect of agents which interact with the histamine H3 receptor on potassium-stimulated tritium release from slices of rat entorhinal cortex preloaded with [3H]-choline is described. We have examined the effects of the selective H3 receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (RAMH), and a number of H3 receptor antagonists, including the selective compound thioperamide, on the potassium-stimulated release of tritium. 2. In the presence of mepyramine and ranitidine, RAMH (0.01-10 microM) inhibited potassium-stimulated tritium release in a concentration-dependent manner, EC50 = 0.11 microM. The maximum inhibition was approximately 50%. 3. Thioperamide displaced the RAMH concentration-response curve to the right yielding a pKB value of 8.4. There was no change in the maximum response to RAMH. 4. Other H3 receptor antagonists, including impromidine and burimamide, also caused rightwards displacement of the linear portion of the RAMH concentration-response curve. However, phenylbutanoylhistamine and betahistine, which are reported to be relatively potent H3 receptor antagonists, showed very low affinity. 5. Thioperamide (0.001-1 microM) alone enhanced the potassium-stimulated release of tritium in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum effects were observed at 0.1-1 microM thioperamide, enhancing release by approximately 20%. 6. Results are discussed in terms of the regulatory role of H3 receptors on acetylcholine release and the possible existence of H3 receptor subtypes.