Two series of medorinone (3) analogs were prepared by modifications at C(2) and C(5). The C(2)-series was prepared from 2-chloro-5-methyl-1,6-naphthyridine (4) by replacement of the chloro group with various nucleophiles. The C(5)-series was prepared from 5-acyl-6-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethenyl]-2(1H)-pyridinone (11), 5-bromo-1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one (17), and 1,3-diketones 19 and 27. 1,6-Naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones are novel inhibitors of cAMP PDE III. Modification of the carbonyl group of 3 or N-methylation at N(1) resulted in a dramatic loss of enzyme activity. Absence of the C(5)-methyl group of medorinone (3) or its shift to C(3) or C(7) also resulted in reduced activity. Substitution at C(3) also diminished activity. However, substitution at C(5) by a wide variety of substituents led to improvement of enzyme activity and several C(5)-substituted analogs were more potent than milrinone.