Neutropenic colitis is recognized as a rare complication of chemotherapy in haematological malignancies. By contrast, the complication is less well known in relationship to chemotherapy for solid malignancies. There are very few examples reported and this paper adds three further cases and reviews the literature. We emphasize that although some cases of neutropenic colitis may be managed medically, full thickness involvement of the bowel wall may lead to perforation and require surgery. The pathogenesis of this progression is discussed and it is concluded that clinical awareness is important in the diagnosis. The signs of peritonitis or septicaemia are indications for excisional surgery with the formation of a temporary ileostomy.