Of 221 patients with breast cancer of known epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) status, 99 had developed recurrences during the period of follow-up (range 3-60 months, median 24 months). Of these, 72 received endocrine therapy as first-line treatment for relapse. Immunohistochemical assessment of c-erbB-2 protein product expression was made using paraffin-embedded tumour tissue from 65 of these 72 patients. Including patients whose disease remained stable for more than 6 months with those showing an objective response (CR or PR for more than 3 months), only one (7%) of 14 c-erbB-2 positive tumours responded to endocrine manipulation compared with 19 (37%) of 51 c-erbB-2 negative tumours (P less than 0.05). Coexpression of c-erbB-2 reduced the response rate of ER positive patients from 48% to 20% and of ER negative cases from 27% to 0% (P less than 0.01). EGFR and c-erbB-2 protein appeared to have additive effects in reducing the likelihood of response, and none of eight patients with EGFR positive, c-erbB-2 positive tumours derived benefit from endocrine therapy. The results of this study suggest that c-erbB-2 protein overexpression, a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer, is associated with a lack of response to endocrine therapy on relapse, and particularly in combination with EGFR may be useful in directing therapeutic choices.