Oxidative modification of LDL renders it immunogenic and autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidised LDL, such as malondialdehyde (MDA)-lysine, are found in serum and recognise material in atheromatous tissue. However, there has been no prospective study to assess the importance of oxidised LDL among patients with vascular disease. We compared the titre of autoantibodies to MDA-modified LDL and native LDL in baseline serum samples of 30 eastern Finnish men with accelerated two-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis and 30 age-matched controls without progression. Neither group had specific antibody binding to native LDL. A titre was defined as a ratio of antibody binding to MDA-LDL/binding to native LDL. Cases had a significantly higher titre to MDA-LDL (2.67 vs 2.06, p = 0.003). Cases also had a greater proportion of smokers (37% vs 3%), higher LDL cholesterol (4.2 mmol/l vs 3.6 mmol/l), and higher serum copper concentration (1.14 mg/l vs 1.04 mg/l). Even after adjusting for these variables and the severity of baseline atherosclerosis, the difference in antibody titre remained significant in a multifactorial logistic model (p = 0.031). Thus, the titre of autoantibodies to MDA-LDL was an independent predictor of the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in these Finnish men. Our data provide further support for a role of oxidatively modified LDL in atherogenesis.