Expression of Hox-4 genes in the chick wing links pattern formation to the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that mediate growth

EMBO J. 1992 Apr;11(4):1451-7.


The relationship between the expression of Hox-4 genes in the mesenchyme and the apical ectodermal ridge was investigated in both normal chick wing buds and wing buds treated with retinoic acid. Two conclusions emerge. One is that the activation of Hox-4 domains and the elaboration of Hox-4 gene expression patterns involve cooperation with a signal from the apical ridge. The second is that the domains of expression of 5'-located members of the complex correlate with the maintenance of the thickened ridge which is required for subsequent bud outgrowth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chick Embryo
  • Connective Tissue / anatomy & histology
  • Connective Tissue / embryology*
  • Ectoderm / physiology
  • Epithelium / physiology
  • Genes, Homeobox* / drug effects
  • Mesoderm / physiology*
  • Tretinoin / pharmacology
  • Wings, Animal / anatomy & histology
  • Wings, Animal / embryology*


  • Tretinoin