The role of cell division in the induction of clonal anergy

Immunol Today. 1992 Feb;13(2):69-73. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(92)90137-V.


The interaction of antigen with lymphocyte antigen receptors can result in either clonal expansion or unresponsiveness (anergy). In 1970, Bretscher and Cohn proposed a two-signal model of lymphocyte activation to explain this paradox: antigen receptor occupancy alone could induce unresponsiveness whereas antigen receptor occupancy plus a costimulatory signal could induce immunity. Here, Marc Jenkins reviews in vitro and in vivo manifestations of clonal anergy and evaluates the ability of the two-signal model to explain these phenomena.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cell Division
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology*
  • Models, Biological
  • Receptors, Antigen / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology*


  • Receptors, Antigen