Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a promising assisted-fertilisation technique that may benefit women who have not become pregnant by in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) or subzonal insemination (SUZI) of oocytes. We have used ICSI to treat couples with infertility because of severely impaired sperm characteristics, and in whom IVF and SUZI had failed. Direct injection of a single spermatozoon into the ooplasm was done in 47 metaphase-II oocytes: 38 oocytes remained intact after injection, 31 became fertilised, and 15 embryos were replaced in utero. Four pregnancies occurred after eight treatment cycles--two singleton and one twin pregnancy, and a preclinical abortion. Two healthy boys have been delivered from the singleton pregnancies and a healthy boy and girl from the twin pregnancy.