DNA sequence analysis of the polymerase chain reaction products, including the coding region for amino acids 416 and 420, of the vitamin-D-binding protein (DBP, group-specific component, GC) shows allele-specific differences. The GC2 and GC1F phenotypes have an aspartic acid residue at amino acid position 416, whereas the GC1S phenotype has a glutamic acid at this position. In the GC2 phenotype, amino acid 420 is a lysine residue, and in the both common GC1 phenotypes, it is a threonine residue. The nucleotide exchanges involve a HaeIII (position 416) and a StyI (position 420) restriction site: the HaeIII restriction site is specific for the GC*1S allele and the StyI restriction site is specific for the GC*2 allele. We have tested 140 individual genomic DNA samples for the HaeIII site and 148 samples for the StyI site by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with a DBP-specific direct genomic DNA probe, and have compared these findings with the GC phenotype classification, by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of the corresponding plasma. The results of the HaeIII RFLP analysis and the IEF typing were in complete agreement. By using our DNA probe, we could disclose, in addition to the StyI site at amino acid position 420, two further StyI site downstream: one was specific for the GC*1S allele and another for the GC*1F allele. In 147 samples, there was agreement between the IEF GC typing and the analysis of the StyI restriction sites. In a single case, the observed result of the StyI-digest differed from the result expected after IEF classification: homozygous GC 1F-1F by IEF and heterozygous by StyI RFLP analysis. We discuss this finding as a recombination event or a possible silent allele in IEF typing. The GC polymorphism revealed by Southern blot analysis of StyI-digests provides an informative DNA marker system for chromosome 4q11-q13.