Laparoscopy was done in 104 consecutive patients with 106 impalpable testes. Three clinical presentations were identified and the value of laparoscopy in each was analyzed. 1) For unilateral impalpable and contralateral normal testes laparoscopic identification of testicular absence was made in 27% of the cases and intra-abdominal testes were found in 16%. Therefore, laparoscopy was of value in 43% of the cases. 2) For bilateral undescended testes (1 or both impalpable) laparoscopy was diagnostic in 75% of the cases (17% had blind-ending spermatic vessels above the internal ring and 58% had intra-abdominal testes). 3) For patients with previous negative inguinal exploration laparoscopic diagnosis was made in 100%.