Infusion of activated plasma induces neutropenia and sequestration of neutrophils within the microvasculature. This study examined the role of the adhesion glycoprotein complex, CD11/CD18, in this sequestration. Rabbits pretreated with either the anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 60.3 or saline were given infusions of zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) or saline. The effect of mAb 60.3 on the changes in circulating neutrophil counts, radiolabeled neutrophil kinetics in the lung, and the pulmonary microvascular accumulation of neutrophils induced by ZAP infusion was determined. The data show that pretreatment with mAb 60.3 did not inhibit either the rate of onset or the severity of the neutropenia but prevented the sustained neutropenia. In addition, mAb 60.3 completely prevented the ZAP-induced changes in radiolabeled neutrophil kinetics and largely inhibited the accumulation of neutrophils within the capillaries and the small vessels when evaluated after 15 min of ZAP infusion. We conclude that neutrophil accumulation is a two-step process, the first occurring through a CD18-independent mechanism that may involve a stimulus-induced decrease in neutrophil deformability and acts to slow neutrophil transit through the lung. The second step requires CD18-dependent adhesion and is needed for prolonged accumulation of neutrophils within the pulmonary microvasculature.