Immunohistochemical markers in rat cortex: co-localization of calretinin and calbindin-D28k with neuropeptides and GABA

Brain Res. 1992 Jul 31;587(1):147-57. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(92)91439-l.


Calretinin and calbindin-D28k are two calcium-binding proteins which are present in separate populations of interneurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. To identify these cells with the populations expressing different transmitters, two-colour immunofluorescence was done with antibodies against the calcium-binding proteins plus antibodies against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SRIF), or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In neocortex, calretinin is partially co-localized with VIP (especially in the deeper layers) and is not co-localized with SRIF. Calbindin is largely co-localized with SRIF, and not with VIP. Both calretinin and calbindin are partially co-localized with GABA. In piriform and entorhinal cortex, the patterns resemble those in neocortex. In hippocampus, preliminary data indicate greater heterogeneity, especially in the ventral part; at least a few double-positive cells are present for every combination of calcium-binding protein and neuropeptide. These results expand the known diversity of local-circuit neurons in cortical regions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calbindin 1
  • Calbindin 2
  • Calbindins
  • Cerebral Cortex / anatomy & histology
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism*
  • Hippocampus / immunology
  • Hippocampus / metabolism
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism*
  • Somatostatin / immunology
  • Somatostatin / metabolism
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / immunology
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / immunology
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism*


  • Calb1 protein, rat
  • Calb2 protein, rat
  • Calbindin 1
  • Calbindin 2
  • Calbindins
  • Neuropeptides
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • Somatostatin
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid