Calretinin and calbindin-D28k are two calcium-binding proteins which are present in separate populations of interneurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. To identify these cells with the populations expressing different transmitters, two-colour immunofluorescence was done with antibodies against the calcium-binding proteins plus antibodies against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SRIF), or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In neocortex, calretinin is partially co-localized with VIP (especially in the deeper layers) and is not co-localized with SRIF. Calbindin is largely co-localized with SRIF, and not with VIP. Both calretinin and calbindin are partially co-localized with GABA. In piriform and entorhinal cortex, the patterns resemble those in neocortex. In hippocampus, preliminary data indicate greater heterogeneity, especially in the ventral part; at least a few double-positive cells are present for every combination of calcium-binding protein and neuropeptide. These results expand the known diversity of local-circuit neurons in cortical regions.