Degradation of dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) under strictly anaerobic conditions was studied in enrichment cultures from marine and freshwater sediments. In all cases, dipicolinic acid was completely degraded. From an enrichment culture from a marine sediment, a defined coculture of two bacteria was isolated. The dipicolinic acid-fermenting bacterium was a Gram-negative, non-sporeforming strictly anaerobic short rod which utilized dipicolinic acid as sole source of carbon, energy, and nitrogen, and fermented it to acetate, propionate, ammonia, and 2CO2. No other substrate was fermented. This bacterium could be cultivated only in coculture with another Gram-negative, non-sporeforming rod from the same enrichment culture which oxidized acetate to CO2 with fumarate, malate, or elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, similar to Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Since this metabolic activity is not important in substrate degradation by the coculture, the basis of the dependence of the dipicolinic acid-degrading bacterium on the sulfur reducer may be sought in the assimilatory metabolism.