Ten patients with unresectable primary liver cancer, eight of whom had elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, were treated with intrahepatic fluorodeoxyuridine (FUDR) and mitomycin C administered through an implantable pump. Four patients had a partial response, and two had a minor response. The median survival from initiation of treatment was 14.5 months (range, 2 to 32 months), with patients receiving therapy for a median of 11.2 months. In general, the therapy was well tolerated; only one patient had treatment-related biliary sclerosis. In conclusion, the combination of intrahepatic FUDR and mitomycin C was an effective palliative regimen for unresectable primary liver cancer, even in the presence of elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and compare this regimen with other methods of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.