Human whole-blood samples were exposed to continuous microwave radiation, frequency 7.7 GHz, power density 0.5, 10 and 30 mW/cm2 for 10, 30 and 60 min. A correlation between specific chromosomal aberrations and the incidence of micronuclei after in vitro exposure was observed. In all experimental conditions, the frequency of all types of chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher than in the control samples. In the irradiated samples the presence of dicentric and ring chromosomes was established. The incidence of micronuclei was also higher in the exposed samples. The results of the structural chromosome aberration test and of the micronucleus test were comparatively analyzed. The values obtained showed a positive correlation between micronuclei and specific chromosomal aberrations (acentric fragments and dicentric chromosomes). The results of the study indicate that microwave radiation causes changes in the genome of somatic human cells and that the applied tests are equally sensitive for the detection of the genotoxicity of microwaves.