Effect of endotoxin on serum granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in dogs

J Infect Dis. 1992 Apr;165(4):689-94. doi: 10.1093/infdis/165.4.689.


The biologic effects of endotoxin are attributed to the release of several cytokines, including interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and the colony-stimulating factors. To investigate the mechanism of endotoxin-induced neutrophilia in dogs, several cell lines known to proliferate selectively in response to recombinant human colony-stimulating factors were examined to determine their responses to recombinant canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rcG-CSF) or recombinant canine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF). The murine cell line NFS-60 was found to respond well to rcG-CSF and the human cell line TALL-101 to rcGM-CSF, and these responses were neutralized by antibodies to these recombinant proteins. These bioassays were then used to determine G-CSF and GM-CSF levels in dogs after intravenous endotoxin administration. G-CSF levels increased by 2 h, peaked at 4 h, and had not returned to normal by 24 h after endotoxin. In contrast, GM-CSF was not detectible before or after endotoxin administration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Toxins / pharmacology*
  • Biological Assay
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Cell Line
  • Dogs
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • Endotoxins / pharmacology*
  • Enterotoxins / pharmacology*
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood*
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Leukemia
  • Leukemia, Myeloid
  • Neutrophils / immunology*
  • Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology
  • Salmonella
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Endotoxins
  • Enterotoxins
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • salmonella toxin
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor