Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) synovial membranes were examined by single and dual immunohistological techniques with a number of monoclonal antibodies against lymphocyte and macrophage related antigens. CD4 positive T lymphocytes frequently expressed MHC Class II antigens and were found in sublining collections in close association with activated macrophages as well as B lymphocytes. CD8 positive T cells surrounded these collections as well as being scattered throughout the membrane and also frequently expressed MHC Class II antigens. IL2 receptor (IL2r) expression on T cells and CD5 expression on B cells were rarely seen in these synovial membranes. Similar immunohistological architecture was found in synovial membranes from patients with psoriatic arthritis (PA) and Reiter's Syndrome (RS). Normal synovium contained few T cells, with few cells expressing MHC Class II antigens. Synovium from osteoarthritis (OA) patients also demonstrated similar immunohistological changes to those found in inflammatory arthritides, suggesting that there are only quantitative rather than qualitative differences between the synovial membrane immunohistological architecture from patients with inflammatory and noninflammatory arthritides.