Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 642 healthy children aged 10 mo (n = 243), 2 yr (n = 183), and 4 yr (n = 216) living in the Paris area and originating from continental France (60.3%), North Africa (13.8%), the West Indies (9.1%), West Africa (8.3%), Southeast Asia (4.8%), and southern Europe (3.8%). Mild impairment of neurological (reflexes, tone, audiometry) and intellectual development (Brunet-Lézine scale) was assessed in relation to iodine status. Iodine excretions (median values) were 18.4, 11.9, and 10.9 micrograms/100 mL at 10 mo, 2 yr, and 4 yr, respectively, and risk of mild iodine deficiency (5-10 micrograms/100 mL) was 18.1%, 34.8%, and 38.3% for the same age groups. No relationship was found between anthropometry, global development quotient, and iodine status. High hearing thresholds were more commonly associated with lower iodine excretion, suggesting mild hearing defects. In spite of iodine prophylaxis, the risk of mild to moderate iodine deficiency still exists in France and in a number of European countries. Evaluation of neurological sequels of borderline iodine status is a major public health problem in European communities.