Synthetic Recombinant Vaccine Expressing Influenza Haemagglutinin Epitope in Salmonella Flagellin Leads to Partial Protection in Mice

Vaccine. 1992;10(6):405-11. doi: 10.1016/0264-410x(92)90071-q.


The influenza virus haemagglutinin epitope 91-108, which is a conserved amino acid sequence in all type A H3 strains, was expressed in Salmonella flagellin, to evaluate its potential as a vaccine. For that purpose, a synthetic oligonucleotide comprising 54 bases coding for the corresponding sequence was inserted into the plasmid pLS408 and transformed into Escherichia coli JM101. Colonies containing the recombinant plasmid were used to transform Salmonella typhimurium LB5000 and were then transduced to a flagellin negative 'live vaccine' aroA mutant of Salmonella dublin. Rabbits immunized either with the live recombinant S. dublin or with the flagellin isolated from it, showed significant levels of IgG response against the synthetic peptide 91-108 as well as against the intact A/Texas/77 influenza virus. Mice immunized with the same preparations developed influenza-specific IgG antibodies in the blood and secreted IgA antibodies in their lungs. Furthermore, these mice showed about 50% protection against challenge infection with the virus. The most successful results were achieved by intranasal immunization with the isolated recombinant flagellin, when employed without the aid of adjuvant.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • Base Sequence
  • Epitopes / genetics*
  • Epitopes / immunology
  • Flagellin / genetics
  • Flagellin / immunology*
  • Hemagglutinins / genetics
  • Hemagglutinins / immunology*
  • Immunization
  • Influenza Vaccines / genetics
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control*
  • Rabbits
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics*
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / genetics
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / therapeutic use*


  • Epitopes
  • Hemagglutinins
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • Flagellin