Immune changes in HIV-1 infection: significant correlations and differences in serum markers and lymphoid phenotypic antigens

Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 Jul;64(1):63-70. doi: 10.1016/0090-1229(92)90060-2.


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) induces extensive immune cell alterations which can be detected by changes both in serum levels of soluble immune activation products and in several lymphoid phenotypic markers. The current studies were conducted in 70 HIV-1 seropositive subjects to determine whether changes among four important serum immune activation markers (neopterin, beta-2 microglobulin, soluble CD8, and soluble IL-2 receptor) and seven lymphoid phenotypic markers (CD38, HLA-DR, CD57, CD11b, CD45RA, leu8, and CD71) reflect similar or disparate aspects of immune pathology. On the basis of correlation coefficient calculation, four groups of related markers (Fig. 1) were identified: Group A, sIL-2R was related to group B where serum neopterin, beta 2M, sCD8 levels, and lymphocyte CD38 antigen expression correlated closely. Loss of CD45RA or Leu 8 antigens in group C correlated with group B and D markers increase. HLA-D in group D was a more distantly related immune activation marker. Phenotypic markers CD57, CD11b, and CD71 did not correlate with the immune activation processes reflected by the serum and phenotypic marker groups A-D. Correlations between serum and certain lymphoid phenotypic markers were generally stronger later in HIV-1 infection when CD4 levels were less than 500/mm3. This study provides information for selecting markers for investigating immune changes in HIV-1 infection and immune-related diseases. Many serum and lymphoid phenotypic markers reflect related aspects of immune dysregulation. However, some markers can indicate different aspects of disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • Antigens, CD20
  • Antigens, Differentiation / metabolism
  • Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / metabolism
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / metabolism
  • Biopterin / analogs & derivatives
  • Biopterin / blood
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD57 Antigens
  • Flow Cytometry
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HLA-DR Antigens / metabolism
  • Histocompatibility Antigens / metabolism
  • Leukocyte Common Antigens
  • Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*
  • Macrophage-1 Antigen / metabolism
  • Neopterin
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1
  • Receptors, Interleukin-2 / chemistry
  • Receptors, Interleukin-2 / metabolism
  • Receptors, Transferrin
  • Solubility
  • beta 2-Microglobulin / metabolism


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, CD20
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
  • CD57 Antigens
  • CD71 antigen
  • HLA-DR Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens
  • Macrophage-1 Antigen
  • Receptors, Interleukin-2
  • Receptors, Transferrin
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
  • Biopterin
  • Neopterin
  • Leukocyte Common Antigens
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1