Mammalian myogenesis is biphasic: primary myoblasts fuse to form primary myotubes, then secondary myoblasts align along the primary myotubes and form secondary myotubes, which comprise most of adult muscle. We provide evidence that an integrin (VLA-4) and its counter receptor (VCAM-1) have a role in secondary myogenesis. Both receptors are synthesized by cultured muscle cells: VLA-4 is induced as myotubes form, whereas VCAM-1 is present on myoblasts and myotubes. In vivo, both molecules are expressed at sites of secondary myogenesis, VLA-4 on primary and secondary myotubes, and VCAM-1 on secondary myoblasts and on regions of secondary myotubes apposed to primary myotubes. These patterns suggest that VLA-4-VCAM-1 interactions influence alignment of secondary myoblasts along primary myotubes and/or the fusion of secondary myoblasts. In support of the latter possibility, antibodies to VLA-4 or VCAM-1 inhibit myotube formation in culture.