The spectrum of cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations was determined in 105 patients by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to screen the entire coding regions and adjacent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene sequences. The nucleotide substitutions detected included 16 novel mutations, 11 previously described defects, and 11 nucleotide sequence polymorphisms. Among the novel mutations, 6 were of the missense type, 4 were nonsense mutations, 4 were frameshift defects, and 2 affected mRNA splicing. The mutations involved all the CFTR domains, including the R domain. Of the 61 non-delta F508 CF chromosomes studied, mutations were found on 36 (59%), raising the proportion of CF alleles characterized in our patient cohort to 88%. Given the efficacy of the screening method used, the remaining uncharacterized mutations probably lie in DNA sequences outside the regions studied, e.g., upstream-promoter sequences, the large introns, or putative regulatory regions. Our results further document the highly heterogeneous nature of CF mutations and provide the information required for DNA-based genetic testing.