An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to measure specific IgG antibody to the polysaccharide, cell wall mannan of Candida albicans (mannan). The results were expressed as arbitrary units/ml, with an inter- and intra-assay coefficient of variation of 7-11%. In establishing normal ranges we found that specific IgG to the mannan increased with age, with 18% of healthy children aged 3-10, 48% of healthy children aged 11-19 and 76% of an adult donor population having specific IgG antibody to mannan (greater than 30 U/ml). We have compared these normal ranges, with a group of patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). None of the 23 patients with PAD, which included common variable immunodeficiency, IgG subclass deficiency, and selective IgA deficiency, had titres greater than 30 U/ml. The patients with PAD had significantly lower levels of specific IgG anti-mannan antibody (median 9 U/ml) compared to healthy children aged 11-19 (median 26 U/ml) or adults (median 58 U/ml) (p = less than 0.001) but not children aged 3-10, (median 1 U/ml) (p = 0.08).