Prostaglandin H synthase is a key enzyme in the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane from arachidonic acid. The recent cloning of a second prostaglandin H synthase gene, prostaglandin H synthase-2, which is distinct from the classic prostaglandin H synthase-1 gene, may dramatically alter our concept of how cells regulate prostanoid formation. We have recently shown that the enhanced production of prostanoids by lipopolysaccharide-primed alveolar macrophages involves the induction of a novel prostaglandin H synthase (J. Biol. Chem., (1992), 267, 14547-14550). We report here that the novel PGH synthase induced by lipopolysaccharide in alveolar macrophages is prostaglandin H synthase-2.