Elements in hair and nails of residents from a village adjacent to New Delhi. Influence of place of occupation and smoking habits

Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992 Jul;34(1):99-105. doi: 10.1007/BF02783902.


Samples of hair and nails collected from the residents of Wazirpur, a village adjacent to New Delhi, were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and correlated with the residents' rural and urban places of occupations. It was observed that Pb and Cd hair levels of males working in rural areas were lower than in male businessmen and officers working in an urban area of New Delhi, thereby showing the different levels of elements exposure of the rural subjects. Such differences in the hair levels of elements were not observed among female subjects. The tobacco smoking habits of male and female rural subjects using hookah were associated with increased Cd levels in hair and nails.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Hair / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Metals / analysis*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nails / chemistry*
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Rural Population*
  • Smoking / metabolism*
  • Urban Population


  • Metals