The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of ultrasound performed in the neonatal period for short-term neurodevelopmental prognosis in 122 preterm very-low-birth-weight infants followed-up at 36 months. Neuromotor development was favourable in 53 (87%) subjects with normal ultrasound findings and in 21 (81%) subjects presenting uncomplicated haemorrhage. However, sensory and/or cognitive sequelae developed in 13% and 19% of the two groups, respectively. Outcome was unfavourable in 14 (50%) of 28 patients with ultrasound findings of complicated cerebral haemorrhages and in 5 (71%) of those (7) with ultrasound findings of parenchymal lesions without haemorrhage. Neonatal ultrasound examination seems to be fundamental in predicting neuromotor, but not cognitive, outcome in very-low-birth-weight infants.