Two proteins of 145 and 143 kDa were identified in pea which co-purify with a chloroplast processing activity that cleaves the precursor for the major light-harvesting chlorophyll binding protein (preLHCP). Antiserum generated against the 145/143 kDa doublet recognizes only these two polypeptides in a chloroplast soluble extract. In immunodepletion experiments the antiserum removed the doublet, and there was a concomitant loss of cleavage of preLHCP as well as of precursors for the small subunit of Rubisco and the acyl carrier protein. The 145 and 143 kDa proteins co-eluted in parallel with the peak of processing activity during all fractionation procedures, but they were not detectable as a homo- or heterodimeric complex. The 145 and 143 kDa proteins were used separately to affinity purify immunoglobulins; each preparation recognized both polypeptides, indicating that they are antigenically related. Wheat chloroplasts contain a soluble species similar in size to the 145/143 kDa doublet.