Tetrahymena 14-nm filament-forming protein has dual functions as a citrate synthase in mitochondria and as a cytoskeletal protein involved in oral morphogenesis and in pronuclear behavior during conjugation. By immunoblotting using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we demonstrated that the 14-nm filament protein fraction contained two 49-kDa proteins whose isoelectric points were 8.0 and 9.0; a monoclonal antibody (MAb) 26B4 and a polyclonal antibody 49KI reacted only to a pI 8.0 protein, while two other MAbs, 11B6 and 11B8, reacted only to a pI 9.0 protein. From the N-terminal amino acid sequences, the pI 8.0 protein was identified as the previously reported 14-nm filament-forming protein/citrate synthase, but the pI 9.0 protein N-terminal sequence had no similarity with that of the pI 8.0 protein. The pI 9.0 protein is considered to be a 14-nm filament-associated protein since the pI 9.0 protein copurifies with the pI 8.0 protein during two cycles of an assembly and disassembly purification protocol. Cloning and sequencing the pI 9.0 protein gene from a Tetrahymena pyriformis cDNA library, we identified the pI 9.0 protein as elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) based on it sharing 73-76% sequence identity with EF-1 alpha from several species.