The prevalence rate of neck and shoulder trouble and considerable neck and shoulder pain in a randomly selected sample of 1773 construction workers were studied. The relationship to physical and psychosocial factors was analyzed. The workers answered a postal questionnaire. Workload was measured by means of eight manual materials handling indices and ten psychosocial indices, based on results from factor analyses. The 1-year prevalence rate of considerable neck and shoulder trouble was 56% and of neck and shoulder pain 12%. To work with hands above shoulder level showed a dose-response relationship to both neck and shoulder trouble and neck and shoulder pain. The psychosocial factors were more prominently associated with neck and shoulder trouble and neck and shoulder pain than the physical workload factors. The psychosocial indices; psychosomatic and psychic symptoms, stress and job satisfaction showed the highest age-standardized prevalence rate ratios for both neck and shoulder trouble and neck and shoulder pain.