The changes in the levels of the binding protein for 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in cytoplasmic extract of the submandibular glands during development were compared in male and female mice using a DEAE-cellulose filter assay. The binding protein was first detectable 5 days after birth in both sexes, at a time coincident with androgen-independent cytodifferentiation of the convoluted tubular cells in the submadibular gland. The level of the binding protein in female mice was maintained at 5 pmol/mg protein after birth, whereas in males it began to decrease from 3 weeks after birth with inccrease in serum testosterone, becoming much less than a quarter of the level in females or immature mice by 4 weeks after birth. However, after castration, the level of detectable binding protein in mature male mice increased within 7 days to the same level as that in females or immature mice. This suggests that the low binding capacity for exogenous hormone in mature male mice is due to occupancy of the binding sites by endogenous hormone.