Humoral immune factors related to type 1 diabetes have been investigated in children with coeliac disease. Anti-insulin (IAAb), immunoglobulin (alpha IgAb), islet cell (ICA) and glucagon autoantibodies were examined in 15 children with coeliac disease at diagnosis (group 1), in 15 children with coeliac disease following a gluten-free diet (group 2) and in 30 control patients (groups 3 and 4). IAAb were present in 27% of group 1 and in 20% of group 2 patients and alpha IgAb were significantly increased in group 1 and 2 patients; two patients in group 2 were positive for ICA; none of the coeliac disease patients were positive for anti-glucagon antibodies. The levels of anti-gliadin antibodies in group 1 were positively correlated with those of alpha IgAb. Coeliac disease-related HLA antigens were not correlated with antibody presence. The presence of diabetes-related humoral immune factors in coeliac disease raises the question as to whether or not they are predictive of subclinical pancreatic damage or whether they are simply indicators of a more general autoimmune diathesis.