According to a previous study, 8% of all children in Dalby primary care district were chronically ill. The impact of the illness on the children's well-being was investigated using parental questionnaires. No difference in socio-demographic variables was found between responders (70%) and non-responders. The study comprised 98 index and 168 control children. Comfort and well-being in school and pre-school were lower among the index than among the control children and lower among the index children in normal compared with special schools. According to the parents many teachers had insufficient knowledge of disorders/handicaps. Children with a physical disability more often had special remedial education compared with healthy children. The chronically ill children were bullied more often, had fewer contacts with peers and more emotional problems than the control group. Improved knowledge of chronic childhood disorders/disabilities and recognition of the psychosocial consequences at school/pre-school and in the child health services is advocated.