The Development of a Six-Item Short-Form of the State Scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)

Br J Clin Psychol. 1992 Sep;31(3):301-6. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8260.1992.tb00997.x.


Two studies are reported describing the development of a short-form of the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for use in circumstances where the full-form is inappropriate. Using item-remainder correlations, the most highly correlated anxiety-present and anxiety-absent items were combined, and correlated with scores obtained using the full-form of the STAI. Correlation coefficients greater than .90 were obtained using four and six items from the STAI. Acceptable reliability and validity were obtained using six items. The use of this six-item short-form produced scores similar to those obtained using the full-form. This was so for several groups of subjects manifesting a range of anxiety levels. This short-form of the STAI is therefore sensitive to fluctuations in state anxiety. When compared with the full-form of the STAI, the six-item version offers a briefer and just as acceptable scale for subjects while maintaining results that are comparable to those obtained using the full-form of the STAI.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / diagnosis*
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis / psychology
  • Psychometrics
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results