Cerebral amyloid angiopathy with granulomatous angiitis ameliorated by steroid-cytoxan treatment

Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992 Jun;15(3):241-7. doi: 10.1097/00002826-199206000-00005.


We report a case of a 62-year-old black woman who, 8 months prior to death, developed confusion, apraxias, disorientation, and difficulties with her vision. There was no dementia. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a tumor in the right posterior parietal white matter. A biopsy of the lesion displayed granulomatous angiitis and severe cerebrovascular amyloidosis, but no tumor was identified. Chronic inflammation with an occasional multinucleated giant cell was seen about the amyloid-infiltrated vessels. The cortex demonstrated gliosis but no plaques or tangles. Subsequently, the patient was treated with steroids and Cytoxan, with an improvement in her neurologic status. She died of opportunistic bronchopneumonia 8 months after the initial onset of her symptoms. On postmortem examination, the biopsied area of the brain showed atrophy with gliosis. Amyloid angiopathy was present but in much lesser degree than in the biopsy. Scant perivascular inflammatory infiltrates were seen only focally, and no giant cells were observed. The amyloid, both in the biopsy and autopsy material, was of the Alzheimer A4 type. This case suggests that steroid and cytoxan treatment ameliorated the angiitis and the amyloid angiopathy as well. The pertinent literature is discussed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy / complications
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy / drug therapy*
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy / pathology
  • Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage*
  • Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Granuloma / complications
  • Granuloma / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Middle Aged
  • Prednisone / administration & dosage*
  • Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed
  • Vasculitis / complications
  • Vasculitis / drug therapy*


  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Prednisone