Two ELISAs for estimating mannan-binding protein (MBP) were constructed and the concentration of MBP in plasma was followed in patients undergoing major surgery and in patients having a malarial attack. In both cases increases of MBP in the plasma were observed. The relative increase and the kinetics varied from person to person. The concentration of MBP increased between 1.5- and three-fold following surgery. In some patients an increase was seen at day 1 whereas in others the increase was not observed until days 3-9. In the malaria patients an increased level of MBP was maintained during 30 days of treatment with chloroquine. The relative increase in MBP was independent of the presurgery or premalaria levels.