In an attempt to estimate the frequency of fungal infections among cancer patients, a survey of autopsy examinations was conducted in multiple institutions in Europe, Japan and Canada. Fungal infections were identified most often in leukemic patients and transplant recipients (25% each). Fifty-eight percent of fungal infections were caused by Candida spp. and 30% by Aspergillus spp. There was considerable variability in the frequency of fungal infections in different countries. Nevertheless, this study clearly demonstrates that fungal infections represent a common complication in cancer patients, especially in patients with leukemia.