Marchiafava-Bignami disease has been recognized since 1903, but only recently has it become possible to achieve a probable diagnosis before death occurs. Imaging of the central nervous system with MR and CT have contributed significantly to such a diagnosis. Two cases of the disease are reported in patients, aged 33 and 59 years, with benign evolution of neurologic symptoms the diagnosis was confirmed by neurologic imaging with MR and CT and both were studied with evoked responses. Reversibility of the disease and possible prognostic indicators in these and other patients reported in the literature are discussed. The important role that diagnostic procedures, especially MR imaging, play in the management of this disease is emphasized.