Development of human precision grip. II. Anticipatory control of isometric forces targeted for object's weight

Exp Brain Res. 1992;90(2):393-8. doi: 10.1007/BF00227253.


The development of anticipatory control during lifts with the precision grip was examined in 100 children aged 1 to 15 years and in 15 adults. The children were instructed to lift an instrumented test object by using the precision grip between the thumb and index finger. The employed grip force, load force (vertical lifting force), vertical position and their corresponding time derivatives (i.e., grip and load force rates and acceleration) were recorded. The weight of the object was varied between trials to access the influence of the object's weight in the previous trial on the isometric force output. Already by the second year, children began to use information pertaining to the object's weight in the previous lift, i.e., they began to use an anticipatory control strategy. This occurred concomitant to the development of mainly bell shaped force rate profiles (Forssberg et al. 1991). The succeeding development of a more mature anticipatory control was gradual and adult-like capacity was not reached until 8-11 years of age.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aging / physiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Fingers / physiology
  • Hand / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Isometric Contraction / physiology*
  • Thumb / physiology
  • Weight Perception / physiology*